1. Breast Lump
Localised swelling that feels different from surrounding breast tissue are called breast lumps. approximately 10% of breast lumps ultimately lead to a diagnosis of breast cancer.
Types of Breast Lumps
Fibroadenoma abnormal growths of the glandular tissue in the breast. They occur most frequently in women between the ages of 15 and 30. They usually feel round and firm and have smooth borders. Approximately 90% of fibroadenomas are less than 3 cm in diameter. However, these tumors have the potential to grow reaching a remarkable size, particularly in young individuals. They can be single or multiple. A fibroadenoma is usually diagnosed through clinical examination, ultrasound or mammography, and often a needle sample of the lump. Fibroadenomas >5 cm are called GIANT FIBROADENOMA .Treatment is either excision biopsy or lumpectomy.
Fibrocystic breast disease: is a condition of breast tissue affecting an estimated 30-60% of women and at least 50% of women of childbearing age. Some studies indicate that the lifetime prevalence of FBC may be as high as 70% to 90%. They are noncancerous breast lumps which can sometimes cause discomfort, often periodically related to hormonal influences from the menstrual cycle.
Fibrocystic breast disease:
Fibrocystic breast disease is a condition of breast tissue affecting an estimated 30-60% of women and at least 50% of women of childbearing age. Some studies indicate that the lifetime prevalence of FBC may be as high as 70% to 90%. They are noncancerous breast lumps which can sometimes cause discomfort, often periodically related to hormonal influences from the menstrual cycle.
Breast cysts are fluid-filled sac in the breast. They generally feel smooth or rubbery under the skin and can be quite painful or cause no pain at all. Cysts are caused by the hormones that control the menstrual cycle and are rare in women older than 50 years. Treatment options are cyst aspiration, biopsy and excision
Sebaceous cyst is a non-cancerous, closed sac or cyst below the skin that is caused by plugged ducts at the site of a hair follicle. Hormone stimulation or injury may cause them to enlarge. Treatment is removal of the cyst.
Breast Abscess are non-cancerous pockets of infection within the breast. They can be quite painful and cause the skin over the breast to turn red or feel hot or solid. Abscesses of the breast are most common in women who are breast-feeding.
Galactocele are cyst containing milk or milky products. They occur in women during or shortly after lacation. They present as a firm mass, often subareolar, and are caused by the obstruction of a lactiferous duct. sometimes It may get complicated by a secondary infection and result in abscess formation.
Fatty lumps :
a. Fat necrosis: a condition in which the normal fat cells of the breast become round lumps. Symptoms can include pain, firmness, redness, and/or bruising. Fat necrosis usually goes away without treatment but can form permanent scar tissue that may show up as an abnormality on a mammogram.
b. Lipoma: is a non-cancerous lump of fatty tissue that is soft to the touch, usually movable, and is generally painless.
Intraductal papilloma are wart-like growths in the ducts of the breast. These lumps are usually felt just under the nipple and can cause a bloody discharge from the nipple. Women close to menopause may have only one growth, while younger women are more likely to have multiple growths in one or both breasts.
Breast hamartoma is an uncommon breast tumor that accounts for approximately 4.8% of all benign breast masses. they are larger and softer than common adenofibromas and, are well-defined.
Phyllodes Tumor are typically large, fast-growing masses that form from the periductal stromal cells of the breast. They may be cancerous and noncancerous depends upon histological grade. Treatment for Phyllodes is wide local excision.
2. Nipple Discharge
Release of fluid from the nipple. There are different types of discharges like
- Cloudy white color — most common, can be galactorrhe
- Cear or light white — pregnancy
- Red—contains blood — most often due to breast infection or intraductal papillomas, but can be breast cancer
- Whitish — yellow, yellow or green — pus due to infection
3. Breast Pain
Breast Pain it accounts for 50-70% of womens. also known as mastalgia, mammalgia and mastodynia, is common and may include a dull ache, heaviness, tightness, a burning sensation in the breast tissue, or breast tenderness. Two types of breast pains are there- cyclical and noncyclical.If the pain is linked to the menstrual cycle, it is known as cyclical mastalgia (cyclical breast pain).
Gynaecomastia is an increase in the size of male breast tissue. Associated in young boys and also in older individuals. Sometimes associated with lumps. Treatment is surgical removal.
5. Granulomatous Mastitis
Granulomatous mastitis can be divided into idiopathic granulomatous mastitis or occurring as a rare secondary complication of a great variety of other conditions such as tuberculosis and other infections, sarcoidosis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis, and results as a complication of diabetes.
6. Accessory Breast
Accessory Breast :is a condition in which abnormal accessory breast tissue is seen in addition to the presence of normal breast tissue. This normal variant can present as a mass anywhere along the course of the embryologic mammary streak (axilla to the inguinal region). Treatment is removal of accessory breast cosmetically.
7. Breast Atrophy
Breast atrophy means spontaneous atrophy or shrinkage of the breasts. Breast atrophy commonly occurs in women during menaupouse when estrogen levels decrease. It can also be caused in antiestrogen treatment for breast cancer, in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and in malnutrition such as that associated with eating disorders like anorexia nervosa or with chronic conditions. Treatment- medicines, proper nutrion, weight gain and surgery- implants (breast augmentation).
8. Breast Hypertrophy
Breast hypertrophy enlarged breasts is a condition in which the breasts become excessively huge. It can be macromastia or gigantomastia. Breast hypertrophy is a benign progressive disorder affects both or only one breast. Treatment is surgery- Reduction Mammoplasty.